After his loss in the referendum, Lévesque went back to Ottawa to start negotiating a new constitution with Trudeau, his minister of Justice Jean Chrétien and the nine other provincial premiers. The Jewish community of Montreal has contributed Montreal-style bagels and smoked meat which is similar to pastrami. In 1668, Jean Talon founded a brewery in Quebec City, but it closed a decade later. From folk music to hip-hop, music has always played an important role in Quebercers culture.  Quebec's spending in R&D in 2011 was equal to 2.63% of GDP, above the European Union average of 1.84% and will have to reaches the target of devoting 3% of GDP to research and development activities in 2013 according to the Lisbon Strategy. , As a result of those deliberations, in 1867 the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Acts, providing for the Confederation of most of these provinces. 8,421,698. Furthermore, Quebec is a free and democratic society that abides by the rule of law. Although the area is inhabited principally by the Cree, Naskapi, and Innu First Nations, thousands of temporary workers reside at Radisson to service the massive James Bay Hydroelectric Project on the La Grande and Eastmain rivers. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. The first Charlottetown Conference took place in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, followed by the Quebec Conference in Quebec City which led to a delegation going to London, England, to put forth a proposal for a national union. Despite the fact that Quebec City was the capital of the French empire in North America, it was no more than a large village for many years.  British reinforcements came up the St. Lawrence in May 1776, and the Battle of Trois-Rivières turned into a disaster for the Americans. Many feared the establishment of Catholicism in Quebec, and that the French Canadians were being courted to help oppress British Americans.. Its major metropolis, Montreal, is … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Quebec has more than 450 biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies which together employ more than 25,000 people and 10,000 highly qualified researchers. The Oka hills also rise from the plain. (free Quebec!) Also, the winter of 2010 was the warmest and driest recorded in more than 60 years..  Its landscape is low-lying and flat, except for isolated igneous outcrops near Montreal called the Monteregian Hills, formerly covered by the waters of Lake Champlain. The aquatic environment is composed of 12.1% of fresh water and 9.2% of saltwater (percentage of total QC area). Sixty percent of the Quebec electorate voted against the proposition for sovereignty-association. Currently, the song Gens du pays is by far preferred by many Quebecers to be the national anthem of Quebec. It is rich in the forestry, mineral and hydro-electric resources that are a mainstay of the Quebec economy. Some species of deciduous trees such as the yellow birch appear when the river is approached in the south. In 1977, the newly elected Parti Québécois government of René Lévesque introduced the Charter of the French Language. The cabarets radically transformed the artistic scene, greatly influencing the live entertainment industry of Quebec. The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War. , The total forest area of Quebec is estimated at 750,300 square kilometres (289,700 sq mi). The demographics of Quebec constitutes a complex and sensitive issue, especially as it relates to the National question. However, Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had already ended; he worked to have the lands returned to France. The following figures are from the 2016 Canadian Census, and lists languages that were selected by at least one per cent of respondents.  One specific area in the Bilingual Belt called the West Island of Montreal, represented by the federal electoral district of Lac-Saint-Louis, is the most bilingual area in the province: 72.8% of its residents claim to know English and French according to the most recent census. When Great Britain declared war on August 4, 1914, Canada was automatically involved as a dominion. There are also many successful plays from this literary category, such as Les Belles-sœurs and Broue (Brew).  Several movie theatres across Quebec ensure the dissemination of Quebec cinema. A total of three Quebecers have been in space since the creation of the CSA: Marc Garneau, Julie Payette and Guy Laliberté. In general, the climate of Quebec is cold and humid.  It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole official language. This high number dropped as a result of fewer British immigrants moving to the city, instead choosing to move to other parts of Canada as well as to the USA. (Newfoundland premier Clyde Wells had expressed his opposition to the accord, but, with the failure in Manitoba, the vote for or against Meech never took place in his province.)  The lowland plain remains the heart of Quebec’s small but vibrant agricultural sector, as well as the core of its expanding urban communities and changing industrial economy. In "Languages", ed. The Cinémathèque québécoise has a mandate to promote the film and television heritage of Quebec. Chart. The city has a population of approximately 531,902 in 2017, while the metropolitan area (the administrative division of Quebec) is home to 800,296 people.  One of the most recent is the discovery of the complex extrasolar planets system HR 8799.  Although some help was given to the Americans by the locals, Governor Carleton punished American sympathizers, and public support of the American cause came to an end. HR 8799 is the first direct observation of an exoplanet in history. This statistic shows the population of Quebec in 2016, by ethnic origin. There are currently approximately 115 telecommunications companies established in the province, such as Motorola and Ericsson. The four calendar seasons in Quebec are spring, summer, autumn and winter, with conditions differing by region. During its history, Quebec has hosted several major sporting events; including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the Fencing World Championships in 1967, track cycling in 1974, and the Transat Québec-Saint-Malo race created for the first time in 1984. 312", "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2011 and 2006 censuses", "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory", "Canadian Federal and Provincial Fiscal Tables", "Dette: le Québec, cancre d'une classe surdouée", "Quebec credit rating surpasses Ontario for first time ever", "L'expertise québécoise en haute technologie", "L'économie du savoir en mutation au Québec", "The Benefits of Investing in Québec Research & Development", "Les raisons d'une implantation multiple dans un pays clé de l'aéronautique mondial", "Stratégie de développement de l'industrie aéronautique québécoise", "Québec veut investir 2 milliards pour stimuler l'économie", "Investir en TIC, innovation et créativité | Investissement Québec", "Industrie minière et substances exploitées", "Encore "dix ans difficiles" pour l'industrie forestière", "Le Québec est le chouchou de l'industrie minière", "Industrie minière: valeur des expéditions, selon les principales substances minérales, Québec", "Le Québec chiffres en main, édition 2009 – Végétation", "Stratégie québécoise de la recherche et de l'innovation (SQRI) 2010–2013", "Comparaisons économiques internationales", "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus", "Science and Technology: Portal of the government of Québec", "Québec had 195 triadic inventions patented", "ombre de publications scientifiques en sciences naturelles et génie par 100,000 habitants, provinces et territoires, 1980 à 2009", "Nombre de publications scientifiques en sciences naturelles et génie, Québec, Ontario, pays du G8, pays nordiques, certains pays émergents et monde, et part dans le total mondial, 1980 à 2009", "Les publications scientifiques québécoises de 1991 à 2000", "A fourth planet around the star HR 8799", "La NASA acquiert une caméra conçue à l'UdeM", "Québec Science remet le Prix du public Découverte de l'année 2009 à un chercheur d'étoiles", "Un oeil de lynx pour la NASA grâce à un Lévisien", "La recherche et le développement au Québec", "Railway Gazette: Railway could tap Québec's northern wealth", "The Route verte puts all of Quebec within reach of your handlebars!