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[59] Traces of the Kiffian culture do not exist after 8,000 years ago, as the Sahara went through a dry period for the next thousand years. Gobero was discovered in 2000 during an archaeological expedition led by Paul Sereno, which sought dinosaur remains. The dorcas gazelle is a north African gazelle that can also go for a long time without water. [1] The most degradation is found in areas where there is water, such as aquifer oases or along the desert margins where some rain usually falls most years. If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be 11 million square kilometres (4,200,000 sq mi). [71], By 6000 BCE predynastic Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and constructing large buildings. [1][2][3] The name 'Sahara' is derived from the Arabic word for "desert", ṣaḥra (صحرا /ˈsˤaħra/).[4][5][6][7]. Shoot length (cm.seedling-1), leaf area (cm2 seedling-1) and photosynthetic pigments [chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, mg ml-1 g fresh weight (g fw)-1] have been determined. 39 (1): 29–38. Uan Muhuggiag appears to have been inhabited from at least the 6th millennium BCE to about 2700 BCE, although not necessarily continuously. The Kiffians were a prehistoric people who preceded the Tenerians and vanished approximately 8000 years ago, when the desert became very dry. These rains sustain summer pastures of grasses and herbs, with dry woodlands and shrublands along seasonal watercourses. Movements of the equatorial Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) bring summer rains during July and August which average 100 to 200 mm (4 to 8 in) but vary greatly from year to year. Some 200 skeletons have been discovered at Gobero. Some mountain ranges rise up from the desert and receive more rainfall and cooler temperatures. [1] Typical temperature swings are between 15 and 20 °C (27 and 36 °F). Trans-Saharan Africa in World History, Ch. Raids from the nomadic Berber people of the desert were of constant concern to those living on the edge of the desert. The highest recorded temperature in the Sahara desert is 116.6 °F in the Algerian Desert having an elevation of 1,240 feet above sea level. Important cities located in the Sahara include Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania; Tamanrasset, Ouargla, Béchar, Hassi Messaoud, Ghardaïa, and El Oued in Algeria; Timbuktu in Mali; Agadez in Niger; Ghat in Libya; and Faya-Largeau in Chad. [24], The climate of the Sahara has undergone enormous variations between wet and dry over the last few hundred thousand years,[25] believed to be caused by long-term changes in the North African climate cycle that alters the path of the North African Monsoon – usually southward. The regions found within this zone include Agadez in Niger and Timbuktu in Mali. These extremely arid areas often receive no rain for years. Indeed, the extreme aridity of the Sahara is not only explained by the subtropical high pressure: the Atlas Mountains of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia also help to enhance the aridity of the northern part of the desert. [citation needed]. [66] In 1958–59, an archaeological expedition led by Antonio Ascenzi conducted anthropological, radiological, histological and chemical analyses on the Uan Muhuggiag mummy. Spain captured present-day Western Sahara after 1874, although Rio del Oro remained largely under Sahrawi influence. Eric Dinerstein, David Olson, et al. It covers 9 million square kilometres (3,500,000 sq mi), amounting to 31% of Africa. The Sahara is the world's largest low-latitude hot desert. The average temperatures in Sahara desert reach between 100.4 and 104.0°F during the hottest months in almost all parts of the desert except for areas with high altitudes. [26], The idea that changes in insolation (solar heating) caused by long-term changes in the Earth's orbit are a controlling factor for the long-term variations in the strength of monsoon patterns across the globe was first suggested by Rudolf Spitaler in the late nineteenth century,[27] The hypothesis was later formally proposed and tested by the meteorologist John Kutzbach in 1981. In 1902, the French penetrated Hoggar Mountains and defeated Ahaggar Tuareg in the battle of Tit. It is also the world’s largest hot desert extending to an area of 3,600,000 square miles with average temperatures during the hottest months reaching 100.4 to 104.0 °F. [72] Burial items included pottery, jewelry, farming and hunting equipment, and assorted foods including dried meat and fruit. In the southern Sahara, the drying trend was initially counteracted by the monsoon, which brought rain further north than it does today. Egypt, under Muhammad Ali and his successors, conquered Nubia in 1820–22, founded Khartoum in 1823, and conquered Darfur in 1874. The south of the Sahara Desert, along the boundary with the hot semi-arid climate (BSh) of the Sahel, receives most of its annual rainfall during the highest-sun months (summer) when the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone moves up from the south. [25] The Garamantes achieved this development by digging tunnels far into the mountains flanking the valley to tap fossil water and bring it to their fields. By the 5th millennium BCE, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia, were full participants in the "agricultural revolution", living a settled lifestyle with domesticated plants and animals. The permanent absence of clouds allows unhindered light and thermal radiation. In the central, hyperarid region, there are many subdivisions of the great desert: Tanezrouft, the Ténéré, the Libyan Desert, the Eastern Desert, the Nubian Desert and others. [1][4], In 2017, the authors of the 2001 system proposed a revised ecoregion system for the Sahara. But around 12,500 BCE the amount of dust in the cores in the Bølling/Allerød phase suddenly plummets and shows a period of much wetter conditions in the Sahara, indicating a Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) event (a sudden warming followed by a slower cooling of the climate). [32] The Sahara is now as dry as it was about 13,000 years ago.

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