Weather-related event: First successful solo balloon crossing of the Atlantic by pilot Joe Kittinger, 83 hours and 45 minutes. 1961: President Kennedy, in his State of the Union address, invites all nations to join the United States in developing an International Weather Prediction Program.  Helmut Landsberg (1906–1985) fostered the use of statistical analysis in climatology, which led to its evolution into a physical science. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration With an essential public safety mission, the agency rated 84 on a scale of 0 to 100 – a score considered “excellent” by independent survey firm Claes Fornell International (CFI). Rainfall amounts across the region totaled 5-7 inches, with locally higher amounts near 20 inches. The Weather Bureau forecasts the storm four days earlier, but not the high tide. 1954: The Weather Bureau, Navy, Air Force, MIT's Institute for Advanced Study, and the University of Chicago form a Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit in Suitland, Maryland. Jefferson made regular observations at Monticello from 1772-78, and participated in taking the first known simultaneous weather observations in America. 2008: The United States tsunami detection array is complete with 39 Dart stations positioned around the Pacific basin, western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Twelve pilots die flying weather missions. 1950: The Weather Bureau begins issuing 30-day weather outlooks; authorizes release of "tornado alerts" to the public. Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. 1970: The Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) becomes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with Dr. Robert White assuming the role of its first administrator. Hurricane Wilma hits southwest Florida in October, resulting in strong, damaging winds and major flooding across southeastern Florida. Climate models are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. The National Severe Storms Laboratory is established in Norman, Oklahoma. Hurricane Rita hits the Texas-Louisiana border coastal region in September, creating significant storm surge and wind damage along the coast, and some inland flooding. The five proposals have been chosen because of the valuable science each mission would return, and because they are feasible to build and launch with current technology. The five proposals are: Storm, which would study the way energy flows into and through near-Earth space; HelioSwarm, which would study the flow of particles from the sun on a variety of different scales; Muse, which would monitor events in the sun’s atmosphere with unprecedented precision; Arcs, which would study the detailed way that aurorae on Earth are sparked by space weather; and Solaris, which would return images of the sun’s unseen polar regions. 1955: Hurricane Diane floods the Northeast resulting in 187 deaths. Teleconnections: Linking El Niño with Other Places.  The atmosphere interacts with other spheres of the climate system, with winds generating ocean currents that transport heat around the globe. TWICCS is a multispectral imager to discriminate ground fog from dust and smoke in addition to observing cloud phases and cloud-top temperatures with observations from the visible to the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, according to the SBIR website. 1887: Upon the death of Gen. Hazen, Maj. Gen. Adolphus Greely takes over as chief signal officer. Why is it important to study ocean currents? – Nature's Workshop! 1910: Weather Bureau begins issuing generalized weekly forecasts for agricultural planning; its River and Flood Division begins assessment of water available each season for irrigating the West. The Weather Bureau's first WSR-57 weather surveillance radar is commissioned at the Miami Hurricane Forecast Center. 1976: Real-time operational forecasts and warnings using Doppler radar are evaluated by the Joint Doppler Operational Project, spawning a third Generation Weather Radar (WSR-88D). In response to customer demand for climate information at the local level, NOAA’s National Weather Service has launched a new local three-month temperature outlook product for the continental United States. The main methods employed by climatologists are the analysis of observations and modelling the physical laws that determine the climate. The National Weather Service exercises the contract option for full scale production with the Unisys Corporation for production of 165 Next General Radar (NEXRAD) units and more than 300 display subsystems. However the environment far above us impacts their movement. Two scientists develop a new method of processing atmospheric data needed for global forecasting and five meteorologists from Alaska design a state-of-the-art computer network used to improve forecasting capabilities in Alaska. 1936: The Hoover Dam is completed, a weather sensitive engineering feat. Water 1912: As a result of the Titanic disaster, an international ice patrol is established, conducted by the Coast Guard; first fire weather forecast issued.  Early climate researchers include Edmund Halley, who published a map of the trade winds in 1686 after a voyage to the southern hemisphere. Dyrenforth to carry out rain-making experiments by setting off explosions from balloons in the air. St. Helens, a dormant volcano in Washington state, erupts; weather satellites spot eruption and alert FAA. 1870: A Joint Congressional Resolution requiring the Secretary of War "to provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent, and at other points in the States and Territories...and for giving notice on the northern lakes and on the seacoast, by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms" was introduced. Drought He serves until his death in 1887. Climate Monitoring If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling. Weather Bureau selects Cincinnati, Ohio and Kansas City as locations for the nation's first hydrologist-staffed River Forecast Center. NOAA Education Resources 2000-2005 1849: Smithsonian Institution supplies weather instruments to telegraph companies and establishes extensive observation network. Records The Navy gives the Weather Bureau 25 surplus aircraft radars to be modified for ground meteorological use, marking the start of a weather radar system in the U.S. Navy aerologists play key role as U.S. carrier-based Navy planes decimate Japanese fleet in mid-Pacific Battle of Midway Island in early June 1942, turning point in World War II. He served as chief until his death in 1938. TsunamiReady™, a national program designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences, is unveiled. He serves until his death in 1891. 1963: Dr. Robert M. White succeeds Dr. Reichelderfer as chief of the Weather Bureau. 1894: William Eddy, using five kites to loft a self-recording thermometer, makes first observations of temperatures aloft. Excessive Rainfall and Winter Weather Forecasts NWS Rivers Over the past couple years we have studied weather in various ways. Weather Bureau selects Cincinnati, Ohio and Kansas City as locations for the nation's first hydrologist-staffed River Forecast Center. 1973: The National Weather Service purchases its second generation radar, the WSR-74. Katrina results in an estimated $125 billion in damage/costs — making it the most expensive natural disaster in U.S. history — and approximately 1,833 deaths — the highest U.S. total since the 1928 major hurricane in southern Florida. The initiative is focused on helping people make better decisions with better information and will require not only improvements in the science and technology of the modernization era, but also the integration of social sciences and the improvements in partnership with other government agencies, researchers, and the private sector. A cooperative thunderstorm research effort is undertaken by the Weather Bureau, military services, and the University of Chicago. The northern two-thirds of Georgia, Alabama, and southeastern Tennessee were hardest hit with the southeasterly low-level winds providing favorable upslope flow. StormReady®, a new national program designed to better prepare for tornadoes and other types of severe weather, is unveiled. Warmer temperatures are driving further changes in the climate system, such as the widespread melt of glaciers, sea level rise and shifts in flora and fauna.. 2009: Drought conditions occurred during much of the year across parts of the Southwest, Great Plains, and southern Texas causing an estimated $5 billion in agricultural losses in numerous states. Meteorology is a subdiscipline of the atmospheric … Earth system models further include the biosphere. Princeton's Institute for Advanced Studies begins research into use of a computer for weather forecasting. These included the Groundhog Day Blizzard of Jan 29-Feb 3, several devastating tornado outbreaks — including the one that produced an EF-5 tornado struck Joplin, Mo., which resulted in at least 160 deaths, making it the deadliest single tornado to strike the U.S. since modern tornado record keeping began in 1950 — and river flooding along the Mississippi, Missouri and Souris Rivers. 1992: Twenty-two of the planned 115 modernized Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) were built or remodeled during the year, with 12 NWS radars installed. 2006-2009 1963: Dr. Robert M. White succeeds Dr. Reichelderfer as chief of the Weather Bureau. 1919: Navy Aerological Service established on a permanent basis. National Centers Upper Air An estimated $14 billion in damage/costs are reported. Study of weather is a crossword puzzle clue that we have spotted 3 times. 1907: Weather sensitive historic event: Round-the-world cruise of U.S. "Great White Fleet" including 16 battleships and 12,000 men. There were 28 named storms (storms with sustained winds of at least 39 miles per hour). He serves in this position until 1965, when he becomes the head of the newly-formed Environmental Science Services Administration, or ESSA, the forerunner of NOAA.
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